Hyperpigmentation is a darkening of the skin which can be permanent or temporary and is the result of sun damage, inflammation, or skin injuries. These spots occur due to an increased level of melanin in the skin. This is extremely common and usually harmless. This condition can impact any person of any color/race.
It is often caused by changes in hormone levels, and is common among pregnant women and those who take hormonal medications such as contraceptives. The condition is also strongly tied to genetic factors. Melasma can be treated with topical bleaching agents, use of sunblock, facial peels, and microdermabrasion.
Vitiligo is a skin condition that produces patches of depigmentation (absence or loss of pigment). So, instead of dark spots on the skin there are white patches that impact parts of your skin. This occurs when the cells producing melanin stop functioning or die off completely. These spots can occur on the body, hair, and inside of the mouth. This condition can start at any age but is typical before the age of 20. There is no cure for this, but a doctor may be able to help slow it down and possibly return some color back to the impacted areas.